In this newsletter you will find all information that is currently relevant to the crop of peonies. We trust that this information will help you in achieving a successful crop. Feel free to contact us for questions and remarks!
For a long time now you are receiving this newsletter from us. With information regarding the cultivation of peonies. Because we are always looking for ways to improve ourselves, we would like to hear from you how relevant this information actually is. What are things you would like to see differently and are there topics on which you would like to receive more information? We greatly appreciate any feedback, so please let us know!
Peony fields in Limburg, the Netherlands
Peony cultivation is not done after harvest of flowers!
After flowering, fertilization needs to be aimed on the vegetative growth of the plant, the leaves need to grow and fully mature. The crop which is now on the plant will form the basis of the flower production in the following year. The formation of the flowers will be in August and September. Take soil/leaf samples regularly and in fixed time periods, so that you will get a better view of the needs of the plant.
Normal applications of fertilization kg/ha for peonies on a year basis
(at normal soil values)
N- needs: 150kg/ha
Phosphate, kg P2O5: 100 kg/ha
Kali, kg K2O 225: kg/ha
Magnesium, kg MgO 100: kg/ha
After flowering, fertilize for flower bud formation next season
- Calcium, apply halve (for example Patentkali or Vivikali);
- Nitrogen, minimal 50 kg;
- Magnesium (bitter salt).
Be alert that enough water will be available for the plant to take up the fertilizers. Drought in this period will damage the flower harvest for the next year.
An active soil life is very important; moist soil and a correct organic matter level are very important to improve the absorption of the above mentioned fertilizers.
Organic fertilizers after flowering
On sandy soils outside it is wise to scatter an extra 300 kg Mix5. Which compensates a part of the leaching. After flowering you can administer the fertilizers in various ways. DCM provides slow-acting organic-mineral fertilizers which fit perfectly in the peony cultivation.
Click here for all the information from DCM.
Leaf nutrition after the cut
After the cut, it is important to keep the crop green as long as possible for assimilation. Actually, the foliage works like a solar panel, where the energy is stored in the rhizome. And this is how reserves are built up for the upcoming season. We recommend trace elements for keeping the crop green. And for the sugar and nutrition transport to the rhizome, we recommend potassium. Supplemented with amino acids for stress reduction during heat and for building proteins.
Click here for all information from KaRo.
Botrytis control in peonies is a long-term story. Especially when there is no protection after flowering, Botrytis continues to cause major problems. Therefore, spray against Botrytis to ensure that damage from cutting does not causes an infection. When spraying against Botrytis, add some bitter salt to harden the crop somewhat. In autumn this fungus forms winter spores that hibernates on the border of ground and air. In the spring this is also the place where the infection begins. During this period control is necessary, but it starts in late summer.
Weed control in perennials is more a matter of discipline than choice of means. In weed control, almost only the organic matter content is important. A very heavy clay soil with little humus is therefore simply light soil for weed control. The effect of a product without damage is determined by the narrow line between effect and damage.
Most resources work best in the first period after administration. If not sprayed at the right time, a higher dose is needed. However, this considerably increases the chance of damage. You can spray with a hood under the crop with Quickdown (does not work against grasses).
A quite new infestation in peonies is known as Xanthomonas. Little is known about this bacteria. Especially little is known concerning how this bacteria multiplies and spreads through the plant and how it survives between seasons.
When Xanthomonas occurs, round, purple-red spots appear. Often with a yellow circle. Hybrid species, among other things, are very sensitive to Xanthomonas. Spray preventively with Serenade or use leaf fertilizers to harden the leaf. And remove the crop residues and weeds after mulching in autumn. In connection with infection for the upcoming season.
Leaf spot diseases
Leaf spot diseases causes more and more problems in the crop of peonies. Leaf spot fungi and Botrytis create different kinds of leaf spots on the peony. Both fungi flourish under warm and humid circumstances and they survive on crop residues.
Leaf spot infection in a Peony Botrytis infection in a Peony
Leaf spots are easily distinguished from Botrytis. Below you will find a list of symptoms that occur in the case of Botrytis and leaf spots.
- With Botrytis, a light brown spot arises at which half the leaf or the whole leaf quickly gets infected
- Often the infection is at the ends of the leaf
- It arises from the top
- Under humid circumstances there will be a gray spore mass on the infected leaf
- Spots spread on the entire leaf
- The spots start out as light red/crimson specks
- Later they become of focus-limited, purple brown spots
- Use healthy starting material
- Remove crop residues after the mulching/mowing
- Watering in the morning so that the crop will be dry during the night
- Keep the humidity low when growing in a greenhouse
- Spray preventively with Flint, Ortiva or Switch. Switch regularly between these products to prevent resistance
Adult crane flies suck just a little bit of nectar. But the larvae of the crane fly, also known as leatherjackets, are much more voracious. They are relatively large, soft and fat and they eat of various plants. Including the stems of the peony just below the ground.
Way of life:
With the crane fly, six stages of development can be distinguished:
- One egg stage
- Four larval stages
- One adult stage
Adult crane flies live only for a few days. There are species which have one generation per year, but there are also species which have more generations per year. This means that the larvae are there year-round which can cause damage throughout the entire year.
During the day, leatherjackets abide in the soil. At night they come up and eat at the stem base and lower green parts of the plant. Also, they pull the crop a little bit into the ground. Stems with a gnawed stem base wither.
The Peony Quality Seal of Green Works:
Peonies from Green Works get our Peony Quality Seal. Green Works’ standards exceeds that of the Naktuinbouw (the National Plant Protection Organisation), because:
- Our peonies are checked 3 times in the field for viruses and true to name
- Young and healthy plant material (2 years growth)
- Guaranteed true to name
- Free of nematodes
- Free from invasive roots
- Dutch grown, from our own nursery
- We do not cut flowers from our field(s), so all energy goes to the roots
- Plant material is treated with Green Works Care™ for peonies
- We sell what we grow (no trading)
- Healthy plants, well-sized, on average we deliver
- 2-3 eyes (75 roots per lily crate)
- 3-5 eyes (50 roots per lily crate)
Green Works Care™
After extensive testing and research, in collaboration with institutes at home and abroad, we introduce Green Works Care™ for peonies. The difference between water treatments and Green Works Care™ very clearly emerged from our tests.
- No damage from water treatment
- Less dehydration of the plants because we give the Care™ treatment in our own home
- Special preventive treatment against root-knot and leaf nematodes;
- Plants have more content and vigor
- The plant better grows off in the first year
- More flowering from the second, third year
- Take a soil sample (determine main elements, trace elements and organic matter level) and nematode sample
- Optionally add a compost
- Very good drainage
- Free of root weeds
- Good soil structure
- Previous cropping in connection with nematode infection
- Timely spray to death
- For orientation go to the auction and visit the plots where peonies are grown for the tubers (purchase for a longer time)
Time of planting:
- Create a planting schedule
- Outside: September – March (the best in autumn)
- Head/eyes set upright
- In connection with structure/water balance, soil preparation is very important
- Drainage of the land
- Planting in moist soil
- Consider spraying beds/sprouting flowers
- Possibly consider placing tunnels in the future (harvest dispersion/better profit)
Regarding the planting depth: +/- 5 cm ground on top of the roots. Because there are fewer flowers when planting too deep.
When planting peonies in fall 2022; benefits of investing in 3-5 eyes compared to 2-3 eyes:
Number of stems/flowers per plant (2-3 or 3-5 eyes):
|Variety||Year||Amount of stems||Amount of stems|
|2-3 eyes||3-5 eyes|
|Sarah Bernhardt||Planting in fall: 2022|
In the following link you will find our extensive and updated peony assortment of 2022 – 2023:
Green Works also supplies other summer flower starting material, like: Ranunculus Butterfly™, Ranunculus Romance™, Scilla peruviana and Asclepias Beatrix®.
Green Works is the grower specialized in young planting material for Peonies, Ranunculus, special pot plants and summer cut flowers. Green Works also is a large grower of peonies for the successful cultivation for cut flower and trade, in the Netherlands and abroad. We supply within the Netherlands and globally to professional growers and (export) traders. With support in cultivation, promotion and sales, Green Works offers a total package to put an unique and healthy product on the market: www.green-works.nl/en
Green Works can never be held liable for any cultural information given and only to be used as a guideline. The grower is at all times responsible for his own action and to read the label of the chemicals being used.
For more information about our products, please contact: